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Dějiny věd a techniky, No. 3, Vol. XXXVII (2004)


Ludmila Hlaváčková

Prague Sanatorium in Podolí—Realized Dream of Professor R. Jedlička

(Pražské sanatorium v Podolí – uskutečněný sen profesora R. Jedličky)

Professor of surgery R. Jedlička decided to build up the Prague Sanatorium when he was not appointed a head of the Surgery Teaching Hospital (Clinic) of the Czech Faculty of Medicine in Prague in 1904. The joint-stock company Prague Sanatorium ltd. in Prague was founded in the same year, it bought a lot in Podolí, and began to build a modern institute for the cure of surgical and internal diseases (leaving aside mental and infectious diseases and TBC). The institute was intended both for the haves and the have-nots. Besides its own physicians and invited top specialists their family doctors could have taken care of them; the latter deepened their knowledge thanks to co-operation with the specialists there. Sanatorium was opened in the end of May, 1914. During World War I a part of sanatorium served as a substituting hospital of the Red Cross. In 1915, Jedlička established and endowed an institute for roentgenoscopy that served to all other departments of the sanatorium in diagnostics and therapy. During the years 1918–1938 the sanatorium (a joint-stock company from 1921) developed medical and research activities. Two teaching hospitals of the Charles University were placed here (the 2nd Hospital for Surgery in 1922 and the 2nd Gynaecological Hospital in 1924), and the State Radiological Institute acquired a provisory workplace here from 1923. A specialized department for the cure of malignant tumours was opened in 1927. The sanatorium was appreciated as the best in the field not only in Europe but in the whole world. During the World War II-from May 1941-the sanatorium was confiscated for the SS military hospital. After liberation in May 1945 it served as a medical institution for freed prisoners from concentration camps.


Michal Šimůnek

From the International Hygiene Exhibition to the Reich’s City of Health: Dresden’s Contributions to the Development of Eugenics in the First Half of the 20th Century

(Od mezinárodní hygienické výstavy k říšskému městu zdraví: Drážďanské příspěvky k vývoji eugeniky v první polovině 20. století)

Dresden became one of the important centres in efforts to reform health services in the Central Europe in the first half of 20 century; the original German variant of eugenics—racial hygiene—was integral part of these efforts. Its development was above all related to setting up in the most important scientific institutions in Dresden—at the Technical University (Technische Hochschule Dresden) and in the German Museum of Hygiene (Deutsches Museum-Hygiene, DHM). Particularly thanks to DHM existence the eugenic propaganda could expand as a part of health popular culture very significantly in these days. The propaganda acquired the greatest support from authorities during the Nazi era in 1933—1945. Simultaneously it got a new perverted quality, though continuity with the previous period seemed to be preserved. Eugenic (or racial-hygienic) propaganda served at that time to the legitimisation of genocide plans executed by Nazis. The importance of Dresden could not be in these circumstances only an inner affair of medicine and/or of Germany, but it was very far exceeded in both—it overstepped the bounds of medicine and of Germany.

© M. Barvík 2004