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Dějiny věd a techniky, No. 2, Vol. XXXVIII (2005)


Luboš Nový

Sur le retentissement des travaux mathématiques de B. Bolzano

(K ohlasu Bolzanových matematických prací)

Comme suite du travail de Gert Schubring (cf. la note 4) cet article attire l’attention de l’autre compte-rendu de l’oeuvre de Bernard Bolzano Die drey Probleme des Rectification, der Complanation und Cubierung (Leipzig 1817). Le compte-rendu a aussi apparu dans le journal Jenaische Allgemeine Literatur-Zeitung (1818, tome 2e, les colonnes 419–424). Son auteur Schmitt (Schmidt, chiffre S. P., l’auteur du numero 799) a écrit beaucoup de compte-rendu des publications mathématiques dans ce Journal.

L’article indique les conditions de l’apparition des compte-rendus concernant les publications de Bolzano et les raisons probables pour lesquelles le retentissement des oeuvres mathématiques de Bolzano dans la premiere moitié du 19e siecle était faible.


Vladimír Karpenko

Redox Deposition of Metals from Solutions as Alleged Transmutation

(Redoxní vylučování kovů z roztoku jako domnělá transmutace)

For almost two millennia redox deposition of copper from cupric ion solutions on iron surface has been considered to be transmutation of iron into copper. This explanation prevailed among alchemists who used this reaction as an argument supporting their claim that transmutation of metals is possible process. In some cases, however, doubts can be traced as documented on various texts from ancient and mediaeval China. Copper deposition on iron has not been the only reaction of this kind and several examples of other redox depositions of metals are given from European alchemy and chymistry as they appeared in the 16th and 17th centuries. The first attempts to prove that copper deposition is not any transmutation can be traced back to the 17th century, but these experimental proofs by N. Guibert and A. Sala remained unnoticed. R. Boyle also analysed this reaction in detail, but did not distinguish between redox deposition of metals and simple precipitation of a low soluble salt. N. Lemery did the same mistake, yet in his textbook he proposed explanation of deposition of metals based on rudimentary corpuscular view.

© M. Barvík 2005