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Dějiny věd a techniky, No. 1, Vol. XXXX (2007)


1 • On Contacts of Georg Buquoy (1781–1851) with Scholars Abroad • LUBOŠ NOVÝ
(K vědeckým zahraničním stykům Jiřího Buquoye (1781–1851))

Earl Georg Franz Buquoy (1781–1851) kept great property in Bohemia. His richness allowed him to devote time and attention to his interests – mathematics, natural sciences (mainly mechanics), political economy, and so on. He published his ideas on philosophical and political problems. He actively took part in political life and was effective as an entrepreneur. The breadth of his interests is mirrored in his published works. He distributed his publications as gifts to all of the scientific centres of Europe. In return he became a member of 34 foreign scientific societies. His correspondence confirms his many contacts with scholars both in mathematics and mechanics, including Gergonne, Crelle, Schumacher and others. The letter of Gauss (supplement 2) addressed to Buquoy is very interesting. The significance of Buquoy’s activities for the scientific community in Bohemia has not yet been assessed in the historical research.

Key words
Georg F. Buquoy • nobleman and scientist • 1st half of the 19th century • Bohemia

13 • The Historical Development of Application Techniques for the Protection of Plants in the Czech lands • ZDENĚK KOLEŠKA
(Historický vývoj prostředků a aplikačních mechanismů k ochraně rostlin v českých zemích)

The paper expands on the history of the scientific methods used to protect plants in the Czech lands. It provides information concerning the development, manufacture, and use of specialized means and application techniques for the protection of agriculture produce, orchards, and forests from diseases and biological enemies from the 18th through the 20th centuries. A historical overview describes the first primitive, imperfect, naïve, and often useless efforts of farmers to protect their plants against harmful pests. The occurrence of pests was frequently explained by extraordinary powers or even as a punishment from God. The article then discusses mechanical methods used against harmful intruders. With the development of natural sciences and research, chemical preparations (pesticides) were manufactured and new application techniques for protection of plants were developed. The paper also shows the growth of the Czech chemical industry, which produced protective means, and of the machine-industries, which manufactured protective mechanization.

Key words
protection of plants • from 18th to 20th centuries • Czech lands


35 • Vladislav Přistoupil as one of the First Czech Research Chemists in the Association for the Chemical and Metallurgical Production • IVANA LORENCOVÁ
(Vladislav Přistoupil jako jeden z prvních českých výzkumných chemiků ve Spolku pro chemickou a hutní výrobu)

The Association for the Chemical and Metallurgical Production in Ústí n. L. was founded in the middle of the 19th century by German specialists, and from the end of the century it was one of the most important institutions for creating main structure of industrial chemistry in the Czech lands. V. Přistoupil was only the 5th Czech chemist employed there from 1920s. His work, mainly in the Association, is described in the article – at the beginning the way of production of phosphorites, his later research (e. g. anticorrosive measures, chloral processes or vanadic contact material), and then his work during the WWII and after the war.

Key words
Vladislav Přistoupil • chemistry • 1920s–1970s • Czechoslovakia

© M. Barvík 2006