Časopis a web Společnosti pro dějiny věd a techniky, Praha — Journal and Web of Society for History of Sciences and Technology, Prague
kódováno v utf-8   home    home

Last updated: 2008-03-07


go to...    Archives of Paper’s Abstracts

Dějiny věd a techniky, No. 4, Vol. XXXX (2007)


209 • History of Confiscated Property of the České učení technické (Czech Technical University) in the years 1939–1945Milena Josefovičová
(Osudy zabaveného majetku Českého vysokého učení technického v letech 1939–1945)

The history of the immovable and movable property of the Czech Technical University after closing of all Czech universities in November 1939 has been studied primarily from the preserved testimonies of Czech witnesses about its state in May 1945. In the article, the history has been reconstructed on basis of official German documents. The initial assumption that the Deutsche Technische Hochschule in Prag (German Technical University in Prague) acquired the main parts of the property for its own use turned out to be incorrect. Most of the movable property not destroyed by army forces during the first week of occupation decayed unused in unsuitable storehouses. Buildings were used by other institutions of the occupation forces and the Protectorate. In 1942, when the original three-year deadline after which the Czech universities were to be reopened expired, K. H. Frank decided on a thorough stocktaking of the property. It was to serve as the basis for the property to be taken over for use by the German Technical University. Nevertheless, the catastrophic condition of the stored instruments, devices, books, and so on showed up during the inventory. Academic buildings and premises used for various other purposes were also in poor condition (see the attached document). As a result, the situation differed significantly from the fate of the property of the Czech University in Prague, which the Deutsche Universität in Prag (German University in Prague) acquired.

Key words
History of technical universities • WWII • Bohemia • Prague • shutdown of universities • fate of universities’ property

229 • (Half) forgotten Inventor Vladimír SvatýVlastimil Havlík
((Polo)zapomenutý vynálezce Vladimír Svatý)

Vladimír Svatý, inventor and constructor, was born on September 19, 1919 in Roztoky u Jilemnice. He died on February 2, 1986 in Liberec. V. Svatý is world-known inventor in the branch of textile engineering. He developed with his cooperators loom of the revolutionary construction using for weaving two natural elements, air and water. He constructed jet loom opening a new epoch of the weaving technology. Air- and hydraulic-operated jet looms, today wide-spread in many countries of the world, achieve manifold larger output than “classical” shuttle changing looms, they occupy tinier space and they are nearly noiseless. Their tender needs less effort.
V. Svatý came from family that owned small weaver factory in Roztoky u Jilemnice and plant of clothes and linens in Nová Paka. He graduated in elementary school and in “Real-Gymnasium” in Nová Paka, and pass closing examinations (maturita) in 1938. In the same year, he took charge of the enterprise leadership. After the WWII he became a head of the weaver factory in Roztoky, and together with experienced foreman S. Zahradník he constructed original picking system of loom there. He substituted usual picking equipment with a jet and instead of shuttle he used compressed air. From the beginning it was possible to produce only fabrics with width of 44 cm. The weaver factory in Roztoky was shut down in 1949. Researchers continued to work in Nová Paka in next months, and from 1951 in the Research Institute of Textile Technology in Liberec. Though V. Svatý’s team succeeded to innovate gradually the pneumatic jet loom, it concentrated at the development of the hydraulic jet loom. Passing shot of weft was substituted there by passing shot with the help of water drop. Inventions of both patterns of jet loom were patented in 1952, and V. Svatý was awarded by the State Prize in 1953. In 1968, he obtained the scientific title CSc. (candidatus of scientiarum).
He worked in the Research Institute in Liberec till the end of his life. He became author or co-author of couple of tens of patents perfecting jet looms.
V. Svatý is a co-author of two special publications published home and in abroad, and he issued articles in special journals and collections of papers.

Key words
textile engineering • 1950s • Czechoslovakia • jet looms • inventor Vladimír Svatý

© M. Barvík 2006