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Last updated: 2009-08-18


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Dějiny věd a techniky, No. 2, Vol. XLII (2009)


DVT 092, 73
Antibiotics in Czechoslovakia 1955–1957. Efficiency of their production and comparison with the world
Antibiotiká v ČSR 1955–1957. Efektivita výroby a ich porovnanie zo svetom
Richard R. Senček

The paper deals with Czechoslovak pharmaceutical production in the first few years after the second factory for the production of antibiotics, “Biotika” in Slovenská Lupča, came on line. It focuses mainly on the efficiency of processing, the composition of manufactured goods, and the application of new techniques in Soviet bloc countries compared with advanced countries of the West Europe and the North America. The paper is based on materials that the Ministry of Health Care had at its disposal then. These documents show substantial backwardness in the efficiency of production, which was well known to the Communist political leadership at the time. The reason for problems is seen as the elimination of a competitive market environment, which could have pushed the economy forward.

Key words:
pharmacy • production of antibiotics • 1950s • Czechoslovakia

DVT 092, 87
A contribution to a start of investigation the forestry environmental services. A chapter from the history of the Czech forestry
Příspěvek k začátkům studia environmentálních služeb lesního hospodářství. Kapitola z historie našeho lesnictví
Vladimír Krečmer

This paper deals with the realization of management processes for forestry in Czechoslovakia in the second half of the 20th century. The objective of important projects of forestry research was to prepare a multipurpose utilization of renewable forest resources. Public interest in the environmentally important forest effects on the landscape environment – above all in protection of water sources and in reasonable protection of cultural landscapes against water – increased during this period.

The integration of wood production and controlled non-wood productive forest functions as two forest management components presupposed a better understanding the basic natural processes in cultural forest ecosystems and their aggregative wood-productional and purpose-functional arrangements along with sustained timber production. Such a wide scope of uses required comprehensive research about the natural bases of the forest ecosystems, as proposed by the International Biological Programme (IBP), to support forestry as an economic sector. The findings from studies of forest regeneration and the ecology of growth processes accumulated in forest research until the 1970s. At first, research findings served as the basis of silviculture – highly supported in the monoculture conversion at that time. Findings taken from forest bioclimatology and from studies of soil water aroused interest in the genesis of the forest environmental functions for a landscape. The paper analyzes the first stage of an important thematic innovation period in the history of the inland forest research, of the Forestry and Game Management Research Institute (VÚLHM) as well as of Czechoslovak forest research in general. The state promoted a task entitled “Non-wood productive forest functions, their societal importance and economic evaluation” (P 16-331-053), with a special comprehensive “Project Želivka” to study the experimental catchment in the protective zone of a water supply reservoir. The microclimatological, hydrological, pedological, and ecophysiological research works were interconnected and further linked with timber harvesting, regeneration of forest stands, and forest management.

Consumptive studies of the bases for the forest environmental service in the branch of the forest water-management functions started in 1971 – in the period of the so called political “normalization” of the totalitarian system after 1968. The “cadre” policy could decide on the researchers and thus on research projects, even at the lowest level of the hierarchy and influenced by local or personal accents as well. That history is analyzed together with the disturbing consequences induced by the impact of politicians’ business priorities on scientific research, which considerably damaged the national economy, too.

Key words:
forestry research • multipurpose utilization of forests • 1960s and 1970s • Czech lands

DVT 092, 103
Charles Darwin, Imperium Britannicum and Europe: The Darwin Bicentenary, 1809–2009
Charles Darwin, Imperium Britannicum a Evropa: K Darwinovu dvojitému výročí
Marco Stella – Tomáš Hermann

The authors took part of the “Darwin Colloquium” (Christ’s College, Cambridge, UK), which was one of the many celebrations of the “Darwin Bicentenary” (1809–2009) worldwide and as well a presentation of the recently published double-volumed collective monograph The Reception of Charles Darwin in Europe (Continuum: London – New York 2008). The authors report about the conference in general, while having a closer look on particular presentations: Eve-Marie Engel’s paper about the early reception of Darwin in Germany, John Hodges’ about the international reception of Darwin’s two great theories, namely evolution through natural selection and pangenesis, Helmut Pulte’s about the relationship of Darwinism and the exact sciences such as physics, Thomas Glick’s about the reception of Darwinism by the Holy See in Vatican. The note includes information about other events and expositions dealing with Darwin and Darwinism, such as the exposition “Darwin – Big Idea – Big Exhibition” at NHM London. The article continues with an attempt to put the “Darwin turmoil” of 2009 and the scientific contribution of Charles Darwin in the framework of the history of science and its popularisation. His greatest contributions to English science as well as culture not only stem from his notoriously well-known evolutionary theory – Darwin’s life and work can as well be understood as monument of cultural history and of the social values of the Victorian England.

Key words:
Darwin’s Theory • History of Biology • Events to Darwin Bicentenary • Reception of Darwinism

© M. Barvík 2008