Dějiny věd a techniky, No. 1, Vol. LI (2018)


DVT 181, 3
Klaudyánově mapě je 500 let
Jiří Martínek

Klaudyan’s map is 500 years old.
500 years ago, in 1518, the first printed map of Bohemia was published. Its author was Mikuláš Klaudyán († cca 1521), physician and printer from Mladá Boleslav. The cca 1:618 000 scale map is rich in decoration and is not only a cartographic but also an art piece.

Keywords: Klaudyan’s map ● history of cartography ● Nicolaus Claudianus

Klaudyan’s map from 1518 (500 years ago) is the oldest printed map of Bohemia: it was made by a doctor and printer from Mladá Boleslav, Mikuláš Klaudyán. The map has dimensions of 46x55 cm, south orientation and a scale of approximately 1: 618,000: it occupies only about one third of the whole print. In the upper part is a portrait of King Ludovicus of Jagiellon, a number of coats of land and leading nobles, etc. Quality map (all of the sites that have been mapped can be precisely determined) has been repeatedly copied over the next decades: other maps of Bohemia have been created after more than 50 years. Klaudyan’s map is not only a cartographic but also an art piece.

Author’s address:
Historický ústav AV ČR, v. v. i.
Prosecká 76, 190 00 Praha 9


DVT 181, 10
Wardian case – Wardova schránka, jednoduchý vynález, který změnil svět. Nathaniel Bagshaw Ward a jeho vynález v kontextu dobové vědy, společnosti a kultury
Jakub Kocurek

The Wardian case, simple invention that changed the world. The article deals with a key invention by N. B. Ward for successful plant introductions – the Wardian case.
The personality of Dr. Ward and his invention are presented within the context of the science and culture of the British Victorian era. The multiple problems linked to plant introductions in the pre-Wardian times, the later application of the Wardian case for the spread of cash crops, as well as its fashionable modifications and role in the Pteridomania are discussed.

Keywords: Wardian case ● N. B. Ward ● plant transports ● plant introductions ● British Empire ● plant trade

Plants have been transported by people for the sake of their introduction into other territories since the Ancient times. This process had always been extremely demanding, leaving a very low percentage of the plants transported alive. The situation was changed in 1831 by the invention of N. B. Ward called the Wardian case. The case rapidly increased the ratio of surviving plants even during long transports. The invention thus enabled a rapid introduction of economically highly potential crops (cinchona tree, tea plant, rubber tree) into new places, and as a result boasted the economy of the British Empire. This development was also reflected in the composition of plant species in British gardens. Furthermore, the Wardian case later acquired various fashionable modifications reflecting the aesthetics of the time and in relation to the Pteridomania, and as such found its way into many British households.

Author’s address:
Přírodovědecká fakulta UK
Viničná 7, 120 00 Praha 2

DVT 181, 32
Fotodokumentace života Československé akademie věd v prvním desetiletí její existence – Reportáže ČSAV a AV ČR
Vlasta Mádlová

Photo-documentation of life of the Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences in the first decade of its existence. Masaryk Institute and Archives of the CAS manage a large archival fonds Reportáže ČSAV a AV ČR (Reportages of Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences and Czech Academy of Sciences).
The fonds, which has not been organised yet, is a unique collection of photo reportages documenting not only the activities of the central Academy institutions, but also the individual institutes, their facilities and equipment, academic and research activities and prominent employees. That is why, next to Bohumil Vavroušek’s photo collection, Fotosbírka is one of the most used archival photographic fonds.

Keywords: Photo-documenation ● Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences ● 1952–1962

The article examines the foundation and development of a specialised photographic laboratory used by the whole Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences (CSAS) and the establishment of the CSAS’s photo archive (which the researched fonds originated from) in the first decade of CSAS’s existence. It also focuses on the evolution of a photo collection at the Archives of the CSAS and determining the rules for long-term storage and cataloguing of the material. Along with the analysis of the subject matter of the reportages, this information is vital for understanding this archival fonds and its detailed research. The article also illustrates how the use of visuals was at that time perceived as an opportunity to present the high-profile academic institution.

Author’s address:
Masarykův ústav a Archiv AV ČR, v.v.i.
Gabčíkova 10
182 00 Praha 8

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