DVT 182, 68
Voroplavba mezi Kolínem a Nymburkem od doby Karla IV. do začátku třicetileté války
Floating of timber between two Bohemian towns, Kolín and Nymburk, since the time of Emperor Charles IV.
The paper deals with the question of floating of timber on the river Elbe between Kolín and Nymburk in Bohemia from 14th century until the end of the Thirty-Years War. This part of the river is known as the middle Elbe. Majority of timber was rafted only to Veletov and/or Starý Kolín and transported from there to Kutná Hora for use in mines. Kutná Hora had the privilege to buy all of the rafted timber for the use in the mines. Only small amount of timber was allowed to float down the river, to Kolín, Poděbrady and/or Nymburk. There were no need to float more rafts until 1548 when property of royal towns was confiscated by the king because their participation in the resistance. Royal towns became lack of a timber due to the confiscation of municipal property. They had to buy timber at Giant Mountains and/or Eagle Mountains and float them down the river. Nymburk had been often at loggerheads with Kolín to get free held rafts and allow them to be floated forth. Kolín was – after the confiscation – in need for timber as well.
Keywords: Bohemia ● middle Elbe ● Nymburk ● Kolín ● Poděbrady ● floating of timber ● 14th – 17th century
The research of floating of timber between Kolín and Nymburk in the pre-White Mountains period confirms several hypothesis. The rafting in this part of the river was limited by needs of mines in Kutná Hora and neighbouring mining settlements. The timber was rafted only to Veletov and/or Starý Kolín and from there with help of artificial canals to Kutná Hora. The royal towns had no needs to float more timber on the river until the confiscation of municipal property by the king in 1548 because their participation in the uprising. They had enough own forests. Nevertheless, after 1548, royal towns were able to buy timber in the Giant Mountains and later Eagle Mountains and rafted them down the river. To buy timber in the bordering royal demesnes was quite expensive. Kolín, Poděbrady and Nymburk had been often at loggerheads with each other because Kolín usually did not allow to raft floats down the river. Each of the mentioned towns was namely in need for timber exclusively for own use.
Národní technické muzeum
Kostelní 42, 170 00 Praha
DVT 182, 91
Zpráva o jezech na horním a středním Labi z roku 1554 (a jejich způsobilosti k voroplavbě)
Report on the weirs situated on the upper and middle course of Elbe (Labe) from 1554 (and their capacity for timber rafting). A report written in 1554 by the commission established by Ferdinand II, Archduke of Austria and governor of Bohemia includes new valuable information on the subjects of weirs located on the upper and middle course of the Elbe river. This report describes their technical suitability for transporting timber from the deep woods of the Giant Mountains foothills to the silver mines near Kutná Hora and further into the lowland region Polabí. In addition to the transcription of this report, the author also describes the circumstances of its creation.
Key words: Elbe river ● weirs ● sluice ● timber rafting ● early modern era
In the summer of 1554 Ferdinand II, Archduke of Austria and governor of Bohemia set up a professional commission in order to assess the weirs located on the upper and middle watercourse of the Elbe (Labe) and Orlice rivers and their technical suitability for bringing timber from the deep woods of the Giant Mountains (Krkonoše) foothills to the silver mines near Kutná Hora and further afield into the lowland region Polabí. As members of this commission were appointed: the royal advisor Jakub Hruška z Března, the alchemist and administrator of the highest mintmaster´s office Petr Hlavsa z Liboslavě and the royal architect of the Prague castle Hans Tirol. Two important events preceded their mission to north-east Bohemia. In 1553 the Czech Land Assembly approved the privilege of timber rafting (for nobility only) on the Elbe and Jizera rivers and the duty of the owners of dangerous weirs to build timber raft sluices. The second urgent reason for sending out the commission was a serious problem with the supply of timber to the mines near Kutná Hora in the spring of 1554. The Commission was supposed to asses the technical suitability of the weirs for timber rafting and arrange structural modifications of dangerous weirs with their owners. The commission wrote a report written in Old Czech (article contains its transcription) about the field findings, the proposed weir adjustments and other measures. The commissioners visited and described 20 weirs on the Elbe river in total, located between a large forest called “Království”(‘the kingdom’ in English) above Dvůr Králové nad Labem and the shores of the Elbe near Kutná Hora. They also visited three more weirs at the lower watercourse of Orlice near Hradec Králové. According to the report, none of the visited weirs were equipped with timber raft sluices. However, we can presume their existence in the too briefly described weirs situated under Hradec Králové. This report on weirs also documents the existence of many mills on the Elbe in 1554. In order to facilitate timber rafting through the dangerous weirs, the commissioners established oral agreements with the owners for building new weirs, modifications of existing weirs (primarily construction of timber raft sluices) and other measures in the form of temporary closures of floodgates by local millers and the like. However, most of the arrangements have probably never been implemented.
Národní památkový ústav, generální ředitelství
Detašované pracoviště Liliová 219/5, 110 00, Praha 1
DVT 182, 114
Dopravní trasa, zdroj obživy i strategický prvek. Labe za třicetileté války
The transportation route, the source of livelihood and the element of strategy. The Elbe river during the Thirty Years’ War.
The aim of the study is to show, how the events of the Thirty Years’ War influenced the forms of the transport at the Elbe river and the situation of the towns on the riverside. During the war the river was intensively used for the transport of the nourishment and military material for the troops operating in the Empire; later in the 30´s and 40´s the Elbe river presented significant element of strategy, as it divided the North-Western Bohemia in two parts. The study focuses also on the problem of bridges and ferries which were used by the fighting armies for crossing of the river and with the aims of the opponents to prevent it.
Keywords: the river of Elbe ● Thirty Years’ war ● transportation ● strategy
The study is focused mainly on the transport on the Elbe river during the Thirty Years’ War and on its significance for the military operations; it reflects also the situation of the towns on the riverside, especially in the Middle Elbe Region (Kolín/ Kolin, Nymburk/Nimburg). Before the begin of the war the upper and middle part of the river (from the Riesengebirge Mountains to the city of Mělník/Melnik) was used above all for the transport of the wood from the forests in Eastern Bohemia, while its lower part (from Mělník to the border with Saxony) was frequented transportation route with two important river ports: Litoměřice/Leitmeritz and Děčín/Tetschen. During the war the river was intensively used for the transport of the nourishment and military material for the troops operating in the Empire, especially in contemporary federal states Saxony and Saxony-Anhalt.
In the times of the Saxon and Swedish invasions to Bohemia in 30´s and 40´s the Elbe river presented significant element of strategy, as it divided the North-Western Bohemia in two parts. The study focuses also on the problem of bridges and ferries which were used by the fighting armies for crossing of the river and with the aims of the opponents to prevent it.
Ústav dějin UK a Archiv UK
Ovocný trh 5116 36 Praha 1 – Staré Město
DVT 182, 132
Labe a Brandýsko v raném novověku
The Elbe river and Brandýs region in the Early Modern Age.
The material contribution aims to show that a number of interesting and new data can be found even in documents about smaller localities on the Elbe, which make possible to get to know the mutual relationship of their inhabitants and the river in the Early Modern Age. The article is also an addition to other papers on the Labe theme, especially in the territorial context of the study of rafting between towns Kolín and Nymburk. Even though the town Brandýs or Čelákovice could not be placed on the same level with the larger royal towns there various documents for the transport or economic use of the Elbe and the impact of the river on the life of the monitored localities also can be found as sources of livelihood. Most of the written records were created due to disputes, for example between millers and fishermen etc. Most of the documents come from the period before the Thirty Years’ War.
Keywords: the Elbe river ● Brandýs nad Labem ● Čelákovice ● Matteo Borgorelli ● Viktorin Houser ● Ettore de Vaccani ● Early Modern Period ● bridges ● water mills ● weirs ● timber rafting ● fishing
Materiálový příspěvek, místy až komentovaná edice pramenů převážně městské a komorní provenience, přináší řadu neznámých detailů procesu raně novověkých staveb mostů, mlýnů a jezů na Labi, též přibližuje provozování živností s Labem spojených, jako mlynářů, rybářů nebo plavců, včetně sporů mezi nimi. Řada dokladů potvrzuje převažující zásobování dřívím jeho plavením od Borohrádku, „od Pardubic“ nebo z trutnovských lesů. Dále poskytují dílčí informace o povodních na Labi a jejich důsledcích nebo upřesňují topografii některých lokalit. V neposlední řadě citované archivní záznamy přispívají k objasnění dobové odborné terminologie – vodohospodářské, vodoprávní, mlynářské, rybářské nebo i lesnické.
The commented edition of the sources of urban and chamber provenance brings a number of unknown details of the early modern construction of bridges, mills and weirs on the Elbe, as well as the practice of trades with Elbe, such as millers or fishermen, including disputes between them. Several documents confirm the predominant supply of timber by his rafting. They also provide partial information on the Elbe floods and their consequences, or specify the topography of certain locations. Last but not least, the quoted archival records contribute to the clarification of the period professional terminology (water engineering, milling, fishing or forestry).
SOA v Praze – Státní okresní archiv Praha-východ
Přemyšlení 220 (areál ATRIA)250 66 Zdiby