Společnost pro dějiny věd a techniky
Society for the History of Sciences and Technology

Abstracts of Papers

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Dějiny věd a techniky, No. 3, Vol. LII (2019)


DVT 193, 107
Nová čistírna odpadních vod v Praze – srovnání přístupu meziválečného a poválečného
Kryštof Drnek

The new waste water treatment plant in Prague – comparison of the interwar and postwar approach.
The article discusses the issue of construction of a new wastewater treatment plant in Prague. We compare the technical discussions led in the 1930s with those led in the 1950s and discuss the diversity of initial conditions for the construction of a new waste water treatment plant.

Keywords: Wastewater treatment plant ● Prague ● 1930’ ● 1950’ ● Bubeneč, Císařský ostrov ● project ● discussion

The topic of the article is the project a new waste water treatment plant and comparison of professional discussion on the topic in the 1930s and 1950s. The project of the new waste water treatment plant for the capital was in the spotlight since the end of the First World War. The situation of pre-war Prague was successfully solved by the implementation of Lindley‘s sewerage system and the original waste water treatment plant in Bubeneč in 1906. But since the early 1920s the situation was no longer sustainable. Therefore there was a discussion about the project of a new treatment plant and its implementation into the existing system since 1926. The search for its new location and its embedding into the existing water purification system was also part of the discussion.
This issue was successfully resolved by the launch of a new treatment plant with an artificial biological treatment system in 1965. Its implementation was preceded by the above mentioned discussion, which lasted for thirty years across three different political systems. It appeared as early as in the 1930s that the outlined questions regarding the location and method of cleaning seemed to have been answered successfully. However they have been reopened repeatedly and there were fundamental changes in the proposed solutions.
The ongoing debate followed the previous developments regardless of the current political situation. Also the emphasis put on other starting parameters, economic, hygienic or urban, were different. The comparison of the form of discussion and its approach in different periods represents an interesting probe into functioning of the professional discourse of the issue. The aim of this work is to introduce this comparison and to point out the form of solution of the problems of the construction of a modern Prague waste water treatment plant.

Author’s address:
Ústav soudobých dějin AV ČR, v. v. i. Puškinovo náměstí 447/9,
160 00 Praha 6

DVT 193, 121
Diachronní ženské databáze ve středoevropském prostoru se zřetelem k biografistice
Lenka Křížová

The diachronic databases containing women in the Central Europe as regards to the biographical studies. .
The article deals with the use of electronic databases in historical science, which are focused on gender and biography. From a territorial point of view, it is limited to Central Europe.

Key-words: databases ● gender ● Central Europe

The use of databases in historical science is now increasingly widespread. One of the relevant methods is their use also in the field of gender history, the most common method in this case is biography. Post-communist countries (Czech Republic, Poland, Slovakia) are lagging behind German-speaking regions (Germany, Austria), where research in computer science and gender history has a longer tradition than in the East.

Author’s address:
Historický ústav AV ČR
Prosecká 809/76, CZ-190 00 Praha 9

DVT 193, 133
Nejčastější řešení vodorovných nosných konstrukcí činžovních domů přelomu 19. a 20. století
Klára Kroftová

The most common solutions of horizontal structures of tenement buildings at the turn of the 20th century..
Ceilings are horizontal load-bearing structures that the building into individual floors and at the same time significantly affect the performance of other load-bearing structures of the building. For individual historical periods it is possible to define the prevailing characteristic constructions and material design, while the choice of the bearing structure of the ceiling decisively influences the character of the building operation. The construction of urban apartment buildings at the turn of the 20th century was not only fashionable at the time, but also had to follow the regulations of developing building codes.

Keywords: Apartment buildings ● horizontal structure ● 19th century ● building regulation

The turn of the 20th century is sometimes called the golden age of architecture and crafts. The unprecedented flourishing of construction activity in the Czech towns of that period may be examinated not only through important public or church buildings, but also from the entire urban neighborhood of tenement housing construction, which today is one of the most popular housing ever. The demand for the use of these houses and flats, which, moreover, are mostly located in listed areas (if they are not even protected cultural monuments themselves!), leads to a busy building activity and their frequent renewal. These districts not only excel in the quality of urban and residential solutions, but the individual buildings exhibit high craftsmanship which is often unnecessarily and unexpectedly disrupted by inappropriate contemporary interventions. The knowledge and preservation of the material substance of a historical building is closely linked to the preservation of the original function of the structures. Maintaining the supporting function is of great importance, especially for those historical structures that are partially damaged. Repairing and ensuring the function of load-bearing horizontal structures are important, among other things, because the load-bearing structures form mostly the predominant part of the building’s mass and are therefore an essential part of its historical value. As with the listed buildings, it is appropriate to protect their historical values – construction elements, material, details and craftsmanship, among other things, to preserve the coherent expression of the historical environment.

Author’s address:
Fakulta stavební ČVUT v Praze

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