Dějiny věd a techniky, No. 3, Vol. L (2017)


DVT 173, 157
Historie tuberkulózy a její léčby
Štěpán Tonar

History of tuberculosis and its treatment
Tuberculosis is a serious infectious disease. The paper presents the view from the perspective of history and paleopathology of tuberculosis. It describes genetic research of the agents of group called Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. The first findings of tuberculosis were proved in remains of Pleistocene bison. The first remains of individuals affected by tuberculosis come from the Stone Age. The first mentions of tuberculosis in written records come from the Old Testament. Ancient „father of medicine“ Hippocrates mistakenly thought that tuberculosis was a hereditary and non- infectious disease.
Efforts to search for the agent of the disease were not successful until the discovery of Robert Koch in 28. 3. 1882. Research in the treatment of tuberculosis remains even today in the 21st century due to the constantly changing interrelation between the agent of the disease and humans i. e., so called coevolution.

Keywords: Tuberculosis ● epidemic ● treatment ● history ● paleopathology

According to the conclusions of the World Tuberculosis Day campaign from 25. 3. 2016, the estimate of new cases of tuberculosis in the world amounts to around 10.6 million, of which 4 million people do not get adequate care. Increasing resistance to antibiotics and migration of people from countries with high prevalence of tuberculosis threaten that tuberculosis may return back to the period before the discovery of its treatment. The need to develop other, more effective antibiotics and hygiene measures is our hope for the future.

Author’s address:
Přírodovědecké muzeum – antropologické oddělení Národního muzea
Cirkusová 1740
193 00 Praha 9

DVT 173, 174
Lékárna telčské koleje a její správci
Markéta Holubová

Telč college pharmacy and its custodians

The study maily concerns itself wirth the staffing of the Telč pharmacy and the fates of its custodians, including the last secularized pharmacist. Having excerpted thouroughly the order documents, we may try to sum up the function of a pharmacist both in the other order posts hierarchy and from the viewpoint of a monastic institution member. Eventually, we may draw several portraits of important Telč pharmacists.

Keywords: pharmacy of the religious ● Jesuit order ● Jesuit college ● Telč ● pharmacists

The study focuses on the history of the Jesuit pharmacies in the Czech Jesuit province. The studied sample is a pharmacy that has been in operation since 1657 in the House of the Third Probation in the town of Telč. Based on a detailed analysis of its activities, but especially using an excerption of the members of the staff of the Telč pharmacy and the fate of their managers, including the last secularised pharmacist, the authors herein submit their findings on the actual tendencies that accompanied the careers of the monks in a specific monastic position during the early modern age.

Author’s address:
Etnologický ústav AV ČR, v.v.i.


DVT 173, 192
Nová akvizice Národní knihovny a její význam pro dějiny astronomie
Petr Hadrava – Alena Hadravová

New Acquisition of the National Library and its Meaning for the History of Astronomy
The National Library in Prague acquired in 2016 incunable of Opus super sapientiam Salomonis by Robert Holkot to which eighteen manuscript pages are added. They contain two astronomical tables and a short explanatory text. One of the tables is the Table of astrological houses for the seventh clima. The other one – the Equation of time – is ascribed to Wenzeslaus Faber of Budweis and it is really identical with the table published in his Opusculum tabularum utile verarum Solis et Lunae coniunctionum (1494). Both tables are analyzed here and discussed in their historical contexts.

Keywords: history of astronomy ● Wenceslaus Faber de Budweis ● astronomical tables

The handwritten addition to the incunable of the Prague National Library 40 E 47 was intended for astrological purposes. It contains Table of astrological houses and Table of equation of time, which were common from late antiquity to the early modern period. The latter table has a specific form published by Wenzeslaus Faber for the purposes of calculation of syzygies. Its parameters reveal that it was modified from the Tabula equacionis dierum cum noctibus which was a part of the Parisian version of Alfonsine Tables.

Authors’ addresses:
Petr Hadrava, Astronomický ústav AV ČR,
Boční II 1401/1, 141 00 Praha 4
Alena Hadravová, Kabinet pro dějiny vědy ÚSD AV ČR,
Puškinovo nám. 9, 160 00 Praha 6

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